Introduction to CRM Part 1: Cultural Resource Management

Cultural Resource Management (CRM) is undertaken in many different countries all over the world and it can go by just as many names, Contract Archaeology, Consulting Archaeology, Compliance Archaeology, and Heritage Resource Management (HRM) to name a few. Whatever CRM is called, the underlying purpose is always the same. These archaeologists engage in the protection, preservation, and professional management of archaeological and historic sites. In Canada, this means that we help minimize any impacts planned developments might have on a province’s archaeological and historic resources. These resources include archaeological sites containing artifacts such as stone tools and animal bones (Figure 1), and historic sites consisting of structures like cabins or artifacts like metal tools (Figure 2).

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Figure 1. A stone knife that was recovered from a pre-contact (prehistoric) site.
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Figure 2. A cabin that we discovered during an archaeological survey.

Using our experience in archaeology and research, along with computer programs like GIS, we review development plans and identify recorded sites and areas that have high potential to have archaeological and historical resources (Figure 3). This most commonly results in an archaeological survey of the high potential areas. Another option is to move a development or minimize the potential impacts by changing the way the development will be done.

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Figure 3. Corey is identifying high potential areas using GIS.

Next, we go into the field to survey the high potential areas (Figure 4). In forested parts of Alberta we do this by shovel testing. If we identify a site, we dig more evaluative tests to determine the nature and extent of it. This allows us to contribute information for the government and other researchers concerning the size and type of sites in the area. In addition, it allows us to more precisely buffer the site for our clients so development can occur close to the site without impacting it. It also makes it possible for us to better evaluate the significance of the site and to render cost estimates for any mitigation work much more accurately.

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Figure 4. Teresa is taking notes about a site.

 

Once we complete the field survey, we return to the office. This is where we catalogue the artifacts and compile a report for our clients and the government.

Author: bromano

I have been working in the cultural heritage sector since 2008. I currently work as a permit-status archaeologist at Tree Time Services Inc. in Alberta, but also have excavation and research experience in Ontario, Manitoba, and Greece. I first gained experience in Alberta working as a field technician excavating at the Quarry of the Ancestors for Alberta Culture and Tourism. This experience deepened my appreciation for the province’s rich heritage and prompted me to pursue more work in Alberta. Recently, I have also been able to pursue more research when I worked as part of a research team for Fort Edmonton Park, looking at First Nations History in the Edmonton area. I have extensive experience researching, writing, and editing in an academic setting and for the private sector. As part of a research team hired by Fort Edmonton Park, we looked at archaeological, historic, and oral history sources in order to learn more about the Edmonton area in 1600-1850 AD. This was a collaborative project where we worked closely with the other stakeholders of the project including the Fort Edmonton Park staff, Treaty Six representatives and the designers.I have also authored, co-authored, and edited multiple archaeological reports during my time at Tree Time Services. My academic background includes working as a Research Assistant and a Teacher’s Assistant during the course of my Bachelor’s and my Master’s. I also worked for the University of Alberta at their Alberta Land and Settlement Infrastructure Project. During my time there, I examined thousands of scanned microfilm reels concerning early homestead records. This has not only greatly expanded my knowledge of Alberta and its various communities, but the homesteading process and what life was like for Alberta’s early settlers. I have also work experience in museums and public outreach. Recently I have helped organize a two day public archaeology outreach event at Fort Edmonton Park in partnership with the Strathcona Archaeological Society and Tree Time Services. I also helped organize two evenings for training Fort Edmonton Park interpreters on Alberta archaeology. I first gained experience organizing outreach events as an interpreter for both the Kenosewun Museum and Captain Kennedy House Museum for the Government of Manitoba in 2008 and 2009. I was responsible for interpretive program development including tours, special events, and displays. I conducted and coordinated research with my assistants on a variety of subjects, ranging from local histories to native fauna and flora. Working for Tree Time Services, I have also organized and participated in Tree Time Services public outreach events at Sundre Museum and World of Wildlife, Rocky Mountain Rodeo, and Peace River Museum.

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