Water crossings are something we come across on a daily basis in the boreal forest. Sometimes we are fortunate to work in areas with active hunters or forestry layout crews, and can use the bridges they have already constructed. These brides can be cut logs laid across a deep, but narrow water channel, while others have been constructed with considerable planning and engineering!

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The first thing we do when we get to an unknown bridge is test it out. It’s not always obvious that the bridge is in disrepair. In order not to add extra stress to the bridge, we travel across one at a time, each person watching the following person to make sure they safely crossed.

There are times that a water crossing would have been fine to cross on a quad, but beaver activity has flooded the area. In these cases, we like to find a sturdy, wide beaver dam to use as a foot bridge. We move slowly across, testing footholds as we go, since beaver dams, like bridges, can look more sturdy than they are. If the beaver dam seems too small or too weak, we will not cross.

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Of course, there are always the days where there are no bridges to help us get to where we are going! At that point we either have to turn around and look for a new route, or bring in different vehicle types, like an Argo.

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Tree Time Gals!

International Women’s Day is a great opportunity to talk about women in our past that have paved the way in some fashion. Without the Famous Five women would not have been recognized as persons in Canada as early as we were. Women like Zelia Nuttal, challenged the norm and pursued something she truly loved, expanding our understanding of archaeology and ancient cultures in the process. Thanadelthur and Flores LaDue showed everyone just how strong, creative, and persevering women can be!

To end our posts this week, however, I would like to give a shout out to all the women archaeological consultants in Alberta today. On a daily basis in the field they face the elements, wildlife, and the unknown of what they may or may not find during survey. Those of us that work in the boreal forest have the added challenge of remote access, long hikes with 30-40 lbs of gear, no trails, exhaustion, and the sheer joy of being places people have rarely visited in the recent past. Many of these women lead archaeological survey projects large and small, while others conduct the surveys and are gaining the experience they need to become permit holders. Our permit holders manage the crews, budgets, research designs, safety, data analysis, reporting, and outreach.

In 2017, 62 people applied for a permit in Alberta in order to complete an Historic Resource Impact Assessment (HRIA), of which 23 were women. In Edmonton we have three major forestry CRM companies (Circle CRM, Western Heritage Services, and Tree Time Services) that currently employ 16 permit holders, 8 of which are women, in addition to seasonal and annual archaeologists. At Tree Time, we currently have 4 women (3 permit holders) on a 9 person team: Teresa Tremblay, Brittany Romano, Elenore Hood, and me (Madeline Coleman). We work side by side with our other team members improving our survey techniques, increasing our site identification rates (who doesn’t want to find more?), and annually increasing our understanding of where sites are in our project areas. All of these ladies have inspired me!

Teresa has really improved our understanding of site locations in the High Level area, which typically has very hard access, often needing helicopters. With helicopter access there are so many additional planning and safety considerations to take into account, creating a very challenging project, which she tackles with enthusiasm. In the Sundre area she works with developers on predicting where sites will be, allowing them to avoid areas. That doesn’t stop her from identifying over 30 sites a year in the planned harvest areas, though! She is one of our fastest diggers, and out-tests me on a regular basis. She also has several years teaching experience, preparing our next archaeological generation. She’s worked extensively in Ontario before moving to Alberta, and is working on expanding Tree Time into BC.

Brittany Romano has started to specialize in the Fort Vermilion area but has worked all over the province. Her problem solving skills for access, stuck quads, or site evaluations are excellent. She has recently been heavily involved with developing our outreach programs, which includes school visits. She’s put together our activity stations and worksheets to get young kids really involved and interested in archaeology. She keeps everyone at Tree Time on their toes with light-hearted practical jokes!

Elenore is one of the toughest field archaeologists I have ever met. No holds barred but at the same time the nicest person you could ever hope to work with. She takes no guff from bears, either. She built her career in BC and Alberta and has a keen sense of where on the landforms sites are located. She often finds artifacts in spots I would not have thought to test. She has been the lead of our blog series, and has kept a great balance with articles and featured artifacts. She has recently taken leave to work on a Master’s Degree. The next step is a Permit Archaeologist!

I’ve spent most of my career here, specializing in the Slave Lake region. Over the last few years I’ve been working on better understanding where we find sites in muskeggy regions. I love field archaeology but also really love the analysis part and outreach with First Nations groups. I’ve been working on improving our artifact analysis process, including its photography. I’ve also started working in the realm of public archaeology, which provides everyone with an opportunity to give archaeology a try.

And of course, there are so many other women archaeologists in the province. These include employees at the Archaeological Survey of Alberta, professors, students, volunteers at all our organizations around the province, and even the people who started out as archaeologists but have stepped away (you never really stop being one!). Women are a part of archaeology at every level in Alberta, and they are passionate about what they do.

Keep digging and researching, ladies!!

Public Archaeology at the Brazeau Reservoir

Public archaeological programs are an excellent opportunity for people with a general interest in archaeology or amateur archaeologists to learn what an artifact is, and to practice the techniques that are used to find and interpret them. Often these programs will have a dig component, where people join for a few days or a week, and learn excavation techniques in units laid out over a buried site.

The Brazeau Archaeological Project (BAP), sponsored in part by Tree Time Services Inc., provides a unique experience. The current sites being surveyed are almost entirely exposed by the continuously fluctuating water levels of the reservoir. This also means that the entire history of the area has been deflated to one level, rather than multiple occupation levels that can be apparent in excavations. The occupation of the Brazeau River by First Nations extends as far back as 12- 14,000 years ago. This allows participants to gain a better feel of how large and spread out an archaeological site can really be. The largest site surveyed so far spans almost 1 km!

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Bob Dawe (left) discussing boiling pits. Photo Credit: Jack Brink

The project invites members of the Strathcona Archaeological Society (SAS) to come out for a day or weekend to learn survey and excavation techniques, as directed by experienced or professional archaeologists. As most of the artifacts lay exposed on the surface due to the ever changing water levels of the reservoir, the experience is relaxed, family friendly, and can be conducted over a single day or weekend, rather than a week-long commitment.

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Participants surveying, excavating, and generally having a good time!  Photo credit: Top and left – Hilary McDonald; right – Madeline Coleman

Participants learn what features to look for when looking for surface finds, such as material, shape, and modifications. By pairing participants up with experienced archaeologists we can point out the various ways an artifact, such a flake, can look; particularly how it can blend in or really stand out from its surrounding environment. For example, Amandah van Merlin, one of the co-ordinators, picked up a small, indistinct black pebble. The black pebble chert material, however, is a popular flint knapping material. As it turned out, Amandah had found a thumbnail scraper!

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A small pebble with a big surprise!  Photo credit: Amandah van Merlin; inset – Madeline Coleman

Public archaeology programs are also a great way to explore new technology or try experiments. One participant brought his drone. He was able to take photos from a bird’s-eye view of the site, providing a totally new perspective on what these landforms look like along the shore, and the distances between the sites. Madeline Coleman, the other co-ordinator, laid out various sizes of brick pieces in order to examine how artifacts are affected by water movement (or perhaps even people).

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Ariel view of FfPv-1.  Photo credit: Robert Wambold
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Laying out pieces of brick to monitor movement over time.  Photo credit: Madeline Coleman

The project is still in its infancy. The pilot survey in May 2015 occurred over one day and had 9 participants. In May 2016, the survey occurred over two days with over thirty participants joining for one or both days. This past May, there were over 20 participants that joined for the full weekend. In addition, for two days prior to the public survey, BAP worked with University of Alberta field school students. Here they practiced map making, shovel testing, and laying out excavation units.

Outreach is also a very important aspect of a public program, such to First Nations group, schools, and universities. The BAP has recently reached out to Paul First Nation, in whose traditional territory the Brazeau River lies, and whom are active in working to protect their heritage. BAP has also recently partnered with Katie Biittner at Grant MacEwan University to begin a hands-on catalogue experience for university students at Grant MacEwan and the University of Alberta. In addition, the original finders of the site, Sandy and Tom Erikson, worked to create a 3-case display at their hometown school in Edson. The case shows some of the finds and information from the periods they may have originated in.

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School display in Edson. Photo credit Sandy Erikson

What do you see?

Everyone will interpret shapes and lines their own way.  But once someone points out an image they see, sometimes you wonder “how did I not see that?”.   A member of the Paul First Nations group took one look at this biface (from the Brazeau Reservoir) and saw a Bison.  Can you see it?  Scroll down for an outline if you are stumped!  Hint, he’s facing to the right.

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Moose on the Loose!

As Brian and I headed back to Swan Hills, we turned the corner and saw this fella chilling on the trail!  The forest to either side of the trail, having been harvested in the last decade or so, had young trees growing tightly together, making it difficult for the moose to make his escape.  We signaled our intent to continue on the path by revving the ATVs and moving slowly toward him.  We gave him the time and space he needed to move down the trail and find a safe place to enter the woods.  If we had just chased him, he would have become stressed and could decide to charge us.  Moose are an underestimated hazard in the field.  They are not carnivores, so it’s easy to think they will not be aggressive.  In reality, they are one of the “biggest” wildlife hazards out there, both in size and temperament.  Today was a good day for all three of us though.



The next woman we draw attention to is Thanadelthur, whose skills and guidance were essential to establishing a peace treaty between the Dene and the Cree. This, in turn, allowed the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) to expand further north, and bring trade to the Dene.

“Ambassadress of Peace” – Thanadelthur mediating between Chipewyans (left) and the Cree (right). William Stuart looks on. Painted by Franklin Arbuckle, 1952.  Photo source: Hudson’s Bay Company Archives, Archives of Manitoba

Thanadelthur was a Chipewyan Dene, born in the late 17th century, at a time when hostilities between the Dene and Cree were increasing, in part due to the trade relations the Cree had with the HBC. Their relationship with the HBC gave the Cree advantages in some ways, such as in technology through the use of fire arms. In 1713, Thanadelthur’s party was attacked by the Cree, and Thanadelthur and a few others were captured. After about a year she was able to escape with another Chipewyan woman, but only Thanadelthur survived. During her escape she came upon the HBC York Factory Post, which was governed by James Knight at the time.

Her time with the Cree allowed her to see advantages of trade with the HBC that would help her people, and so she told James Knight about the fur and metal resources the Dene had. Generally, the Dene avoided trade with the HBC because of fear of the Cree. James Knight enlisted Thanadelthur’s help as a translator in order to bring the Dene and Cree to agree to peace. Thanadelthur, a man named William Stuart, and 150 Cree left to find the Dene in June 1715. After experiencing harsh conditions, she left her group to seek her people alone, returning with 100 Dene only 10 days later. Through mediation and even some scolding, she helped guide the two groups to peace. Thanadelthur returned to York Factory with the Cree and 10 Dene members on May 7, 1716. Sadly, she passed away from fever on Feb. 5, 1717 before she could return home to the Dene, as she planned to do the following year.

Thanadelthur’s story survived through the oral history of the Dene and through records. The fact that she, an aboriginal woman, was recorded in the HBC records is a rare occurrence and helped preserve her story, particularly the dates of her journey and her death. She was not referred to as Thanadelthur, but as “Slave Woman”, or “Slave Woman Joan” (“Slave” being another name for Dene). In the Dene oral histories, she is referred to as the grandmother who brought Dene and Cree together.