Our clients require us to carry fire fighting equipment including shovels, pulaskis, fire extinguishers and full backpack fire pumps, also commonly known as ‘piss packs’. At the end of a shift we decided to do a quick drill to make sure everyone knew how to use the fire pumps, which had the extra bonus of giving us a head start on washing the trucks.
Check out Brian Leslie looking very thoughtful near Slave Lake, Alberta
More than archaeology…
In addition to looking for historic resource sites when in the field we are always on the lookout for noxious weeds like these oxeye daisies. When we encounter them we report them to our clients so they can manage them appropriately. In this case the client requested that we pick them out by the roots so they could spray the area with herbicide before they went to seed.
On occasion accessing our target areas is simply not possible by truck, ATV, or foot. At least, not in a timely manner! So bring in the helicopters! They certainly bring a whole new perspective to the topography, and how our small target areas fit into the general landscape. This particular project was for AlPac, up in the Conklin area.
Brian found this probable Besant point, about 2500 years old, doing HRIA surveys of fire-salvage cutblocks near Anzac, Alberta this week.
Aggregate pit applications, even renewals, are regularly triggered for Historic Resources Impact Assessments in Alberta. This is mostly due to two factors: their location, and their impact levels. Good sand and gravel deposits are often located near watercourses, especially major rivers, and the presence of coarse parent sediment usually gives them better drainage than surrounding terrain. High, dry ground next to water is exactly the kind of place people have been camping for thousands of years.
The second factor is the expected impact. Other development types, like forestry or seismic, may disturb sites, but will leave some or most of them intact. By their nature, aggregate pits will result in complete destruction of any archaeological sites that may be in their footprint. Once an archaeological site is destroyed, it’s gone forever. This means the province only gets one chance to find, understand and protect sites if they’re in a planned gravel pit. The survey intensity and mitigation standards are therefore more stringent.
Gravel pits also have a high potential to contain quaternary (ice age) mammal fossils. Bones and tusks from ice age animals like mammoths, extinct bison and sabre toothed cats were often deposited in gravel bars along ice-age rivers. These gravel bars are the gravel seams that the modern aggregate industry targets.
Alberta Culture released new guidelines for gravel pit Historical Resources Act compliance two years ago. In short, pits under 5 ha require an HRIA if there’s a known site in the immediate area. Pits over 5 ha require an HRIA if there’s a known site, or if the land is deemed to have high archaeological or palaeontological potential.
The 2004 Code of Practice for sand and gravel pits says that gravel pits “may be required to shut down if artefacts are discovered during operation of the pit” (section 8.3.6). This is very rare. Usually if an archaeological site is found during the HRIA, it can be avoided or archaeological digs (mitigative excavation) can be done to salvage a sample of the site before development. If archaeological or palaeontological resources (for example arrowheads, stone tools, ice age mammal or dinosaur bone) are found during operation, the pit operator is required to report it (this post explains how), and some salvage may be done, but it’s unlikely the pit will be shut down. Alberta Culture and historic resource management professionals like us work to balance economic development for Alberta’s future with preservation of it’s past.
To keep up to date on Historic Resource regulations and processes, you can subscribe to our quarterly Regulatory Update email.
Over the years archaeologists have adopted technological advances from other disciplines. In the office, using programs such as QGIS along with LIDAR and other data sets we can create models to predict sites. In the field, we use a GPS for navigation and iPads to take our notes. Artifact processing has also seen many advances helping us to date and source artifacts.
For all of these advances that have been made in the field, certain tools remain the same. One of the most essential tools that we use in the field is a shovel. I know many people associate trowels and fedoras with archaeologists, however these are most commonly used in academic excavations. While in the world of CRM the trowel will be used for certain situations, the shovel reigns, specifically at Tree Time it is the King of Spades.
The reigning king
The advantages to the King of Spades are its durability and its ability to cut through roots. The all metal shovel has never been broken by a staff member at Tree Time. Maybe lost forever in a deep stream when accidentally dropped… but never broken. In addition, the sheer weight of the shovel can help pound through roots. Other shovels are not as durable, the blades may warp, and they are more prone to breaking at the shaft break. Not the king though.
The Grizzly Challenger
Most shovels are not made of all metal but incorporate bits of wood. There can be a wide variety in quality so we highly recommend the Grizzly. These shovels are much lighter and easier to sharpen. The durability of the King of Spades comes at a cost, it is by far the heaviest and the most difficult to sharpen due to its thick blade. The ability to sharpen the Grizzly easily due to the thinner blade helps us maintain a sharp edge in the field to cut through roots. The light weight also makes them a lot easier to hike a long distance with, making for a much more pleasant hike.
In the end the durability of the King of Spades wins the favor of most of us at Tree Time. In fact five out of seven archaeologists, well at least at Tree Time, agree that the King of Spades shovel is the preferred tool. Long live the king.
This would not have happened if Madeline had the King of Spades!