Here is an example of a unique artifact type – it is a large metal can that once contained blasting powder. We often find these cans associated with the old historic railways found throughout the province. This particular can has an inscription on the base which helps us to identify the contents of the can. In this case it also has the name of the producer. This information can help us to narrow down the age of the can.
Weather can change very quickly in the foothills. From one day to the next, and within the day itself.
The following photos were taken all on the next day.
The weather can also change a lot depending on your elevation. In order to get out of the valley we were in we had to drive up and down a mountain pass. There was a lot more snow at the higher elevation than where we were working There was no snow on our drive in that morning.
We are now using more accurate GPS’ to record our field data. Brian here is testing out the EOS Arrow. It is in the orange and black case attached to his vest. The antenna for the Arrow is in a small pouch on top of his hat.
If you spend a lot of time outdoors, either for work or for pleasure, you learn that the weather can change very quickly. You also become aware of how unforgiving mother nature can be. That is why it is so important to carry the right gear and to know some basic survival skills in case things go south.
This spring we took a survival course through Three Ravens Bushcraft. We learned how to make a warm bed to sleep in and brushed up on our fire making skills.
If you want to learn some new skills or refresh some old ones, check out their youtube page for some videos on survival tips. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCQ7ME60IZoRo7_lXpevEbA
These skills are great to know and could save your life in an emergency. However, the best way to stay safe, is to try to avoid the situation in the first place. You can do this by preparing for your trip in advance. Make sure people know where and for how long you plan on going. Plan your route and check the weather reports. Also take into consideration changing weather conditions and alter your plans if need be.
The above photo was taken on May 24 2017, the temperature was closer to plus 18° C the day before. We knew this storm was coming a couple of days in advance so we were prepared for it. You can also check out Alberta parks website for hiking and back country safety tips.
The bugs are particularly unpleasant in the northern parts of the province this year. We use bug nets and insect repellent to try to avoid getting bit and feeding them (and to retain some level of sanity!) But there is no way to escape them out there!
During an archaeological survey or excavation when animals bones are found, we look for signs that they were somehow modified or processed by humans. Animals were not only a source for food, but their skin, fur, and bones had many other uses. We might find cut marks from a knife made during butchering, or the bone itself might be shaped into a tool such as an awl. If the animal seems to have been killed or somehow used by humans we can classify it as an artifact.
However, not every animal bone that we find is an artifact. Sometimes during a survey, a test pit might have an animal bone in it. If no other artifacts were found in the area and the bone shows no signs of human use, then we cannot call it an artifact. Nature does takes its course without human interference. The animal remains pictured here serve as a reminder of that. These remains, likely of a wolf, found in the summer of 2014 will eventually be buried over time.
In the summer of 2016, while doing some work on behalf of Northern Sunrise County near Peace River, Tree Time archaeologists, recorded a cabin as an archaeological site. Although the cabin had clearly been renovated in the late 20th century with wood paneling and plastic sheeting, the cabin showed signs of earlier construction. The cabin was built with aspen logs, that were axe-felled, saw-cut and notched, with mud chinking between the logs.
After we documented the cabin and returned to our office in Edmonton. We turned to the Alberta Homestead Records to see if we could find any historic documents about this cabin. There were three entries for the quarter section of land that the cabin was located on. The first was on the 19th of July in 1928. Mr. Orval Moxley, originally of Kentucky, applied for a homestead, but appears to have abandoned the property and applied for another homestead on a different quarter. The following summer, on August 30th, 1929, Paul W. Unruh of East Prussia Germany applied for homestead. The application notes “Nil” for previous improvements on the quarter when Unruh took possession. This means that Mr. Moxley had not completed any improvements on the section before he abandoned the land. Mr. Unruh must also have found the location not to his liking, because there are no records of him applying for patent for his homestead.
On 29th January or July (the record is illegible) of 1930, Mr. George H.B. Garstin, of London England, applied for homestead of the quarter. Mr. Unruh must have been somewhat industrious, as Mr. Garstin notes the presence of a “log shack, old stable + well” in his homestead application. The homestead record ends here. Indicating that Mr. Garstin failed to prove up his homestead and apply for patent.
The aspen log cabin is interpreted as having been built by Paul Unruh in late 1929 as part of his efforts to homestead the quarter. Maybe further archival, historical and genealogical research could find out why he abandoned it.
The Alberta Homestead Records are a valuable tool for researchers. This is not only true for archaeologists, but also for people trying to research their own family history. The next couple of blog posts will explain what the homesteading process was like and how to use the Alberta Homestead Records to research your own history.